常见 SQL 避坑指南

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1 LIMIT语句 

分页查询是最常用的场景之一,但也通常也是最容易出问题的地方。比如对于下面简单的语句,一般 DBA 想到的办法是在 type, name, create_time 字段上加组合索引。这样条件排序都能有效的利用到索引,性能迅速提升。


 
SELECT * 	
FROM   operation 	
WHERE  type = 'SQLStats' 	
       AND name = 'SlowLog' 	
ORDER  BY create_time 	
LIMIT  1000, 10;

好吧,可能90%以上的 DBA 解决该问题就到此为止。但当 LIMIT 子句变成 “LIMIT 1000000,10” 时,程序员仍然会抱怨:我只取10条记录为什么还是慢?

要知道数据库也并不知道第1000000条记录从什么地方开始,即使有索引也需要从头计算一次。出现这种性能问题,多数情形下是程序员偷懒了。

在前端数据浏览翻页,或者大数据分批导出等场景下,是可以将上一页的最大值当成参数作为查询条件的。SQL 重新设计如下:


 
SELECT   * 	
FROM     operation 	
WHERE    type = 'SQLStats' 	
AND      name = 'SlowLog' 	
AND      create_time > '2017-03-16 14:00:00' 	
ORDER BY create_time limit 10;

在新设计下查询时间基本固定,不会随着数据量的增长而发生变化。

2 、隐式转换

SQL语句中查询变量和字段定义类型不匹配是另一个常见的错误。比如下面的语句:


 
mysql> explain extended SELECT * 	
     > FROM   my_balance b 	
     > WHERE  b.bpn = 14000000123 	
     >       AND b.isverified IS NULL ;	
mysql> show warnings;	
| Warning | 1739 | Cannot use ref access on index 'bpn' due to type or collation conversion on field 'bpn'

其中字段 bpn 的定义为 varchar(20),MySQL 的策略是将字符串转换为数字之后再比较。函数作用于表字段,索引失效。

上述情况可能是应用程序框架自动填入的参数,而不是程序员的原意。现在应用框架很多很繁杂,使用方便的同时也小心它可能给自己挖坑。

3 关联更新、删除 

虽然 MySQL5.6 引入了物化特性,但需要特别注意它目前仅仅针对查询语句的优化。对于更新或删除需要手工重写成 JOIN。

比如下面 UPDATE 语句,MySQL 实际执行的是循环/嵌套子查询(DEPENDENT SUBQUERY),其执行时间可想而知。


 
UPDATE operation o 	
SET    status = 'applying' 	
WHERE  o.id IN (SELECT id 	
                FROM   (SELECT o.id, 	
                               o.status 	
                        FROM   operation o 	
                        WHERE  o.group = 123 	
                               AND o.status NOT IN ( 'done' ) 	
                        ORDER  BY o.parent, 	
                                  o.id 	
                        LIMIT  1) t);

执行计划:


 
+----+--------------------+-------+-------+---------------+---------+---------+-------+------+-----------------------------------------------------+	
| id | select_type        | table | type  | possible_keys | key     | key_len | ref   | rows | Extra                                               |	
+----+--------------------+-------+-------+---------------+---------+---------+-------+------+-----------------------------------------------------+	
| 1  | PRIMARY            | o     | index |               | PRIMARY | 8       |       | 24   | Using where; Using temporary                        |	
| 2  | DEPENDENT SUBQUERY |       |       |               |         |         |       |      | Impossible WHERE noticed after reading const tables |	
| 3  | DERIVED            | o     | ref   | idx_2,idx_5   | idx_5   | 8       | const | 1    | Using where; Using filesort                         |	
+----+--------------------+-------+-------+---------------+---------+---------+-------+------+-----------------------------------------------------+

重写为 JOIN 之后,子查询的选择模式从 DEPENDENT SUBQUERY 变成 DERIVED,执行速度大大加快,从7秒降低到2毫秒。


 
UPDATE operation o 	
       JOIN  (SELECT o.id, 	
                            o.status 	
                     FROM   operation o 	
                     WHERE  o.group = 123 	
                            AND o.status NOT IN ( 'done' ) 	
                     ORDER  BY o.parent, 	
                               o.id 	
                     LIMIT  1) t	
         ON o.id = t.id 	
SET    status = 'applying' 

执行计划简化为:


 
+----+-------------+-------+------+---------------+-------+---------+-------+------+-----------------------------------------------------+	
| id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key   | key_len | ref   | rows | Extra                                               |	
+----+-------------+-------+------+---------------+-------+---------+-------+------+-----------------------------------------------------+	
| 1  | PRIMARY     |       |      |               |       |         |       |      | Impossible WHERE noticed after reading const tables |	
| 2  | DERIVED     | o     | ref  | idx_2,idx_5   | idx_5 | 8       | const | 1    | Using where; Using filesort                         |	
+----+-------------+-------+------+---------------+-------+---------+-------+------+-----------------------------------------------------+


4 、混合排序 

MySQL 不能利用索引进行混合排序。但在某些场景,还是有机会使用特殊方法提升性能的。


 
SELECT * 	
FROM   my_order o 	
       INNER JOIN my_appraise a ON a.orderid = o.id 	
ORDER  BY a.is_reply ASC, 	
          a.appraise_time DESC 	
LIMIT  0, 20 

执行计划显示为全表扫描:


 
+----+-------------+-------+--------+-------------+---------+---------+---------------+---------+-+	
| id | select_type | table | type   | possible_keys     | key     | key_len | ref      | rows    | Extra    	
+----+-------------+-------+--------+-------------+---------+---------+---------------+---------+-+	
|  1 | SIMPLE      | a     | ALL    | idx_orderid | NULL    | NULL    | NULL    | 1967647 | Using filesort |	
|  1 | SIMPLE      | o     | eq_ref | PRIMARY     | PRIMARY | 122     | a.orderid |       1 | NULL           |	
+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------+---------+---------+-----------------+---------+-+

由于 is_reply 只有0和1两种状态,我们按照下面的方法重写后,执行时间从1.58秒降低到2毫秒。


 
SELECT * 	
FROM   ((SELECT *	
         FROM   my_order o 	
                INNER JOIN my_appraise a 	
                        ON a.orderid = o.id 	
                           AND is_reply = 0 	
         ORDER  BY appraise_time DESC 	
         LIMIT  0, 20) 	
        UNION ALL 	
        (SELECT *	
         FROM   my_order o 	
                INNER JOIN my_appraise a 	
                        ON a.orderid = o.id 	
                           AND is_reply = 1 	
         ORDER  BY appraise_time DESC 	
         LIMIT  0, 20)) t 	
ORDER  BY  is_reply ASC, 	
          appraisetime DESC 	
LIMIT  20;


5 、EXISTS语句 

MySQL 对待 EXISTS 子句时,仍然采用嵌套子查询的执行方式。如下面的 SQL 语句:


 
SELECT *	
FROM   my_neighbor n 	
       LEFT JOIN my_neighbor_apply sra 	
              ON n.id = sra.neighbor_id 	
                 AND sra.user_id = 'xxx' 	
WHERE  n.topic_status < 4 	
       AND EXISTS(SELECT 1 	
                  FROM   message_info m 	
                  WHERE  n.id = m.neighbor_id 	
                         AND m.inuser = 'xxx') 	
       AND n.topic_type <> 5 

执行计划为:


 
+----+--------------------+-------+------+-----+------------------------------------------+---------+-------+---------+ -----+	
| id | select_type        | table | type | possible_keys     | key   | key_len | ref   | rows    | Extra   |	
+----+--------------------+-------+------+ -----+------------------------------------------+---------+-------+---------+ -----+	
|  1 | PRIMARY            | n     | ALL  |  | NULL     | NULL    | NULL  | 1086041 | Using where                   |	
|  1 | PRIMARY            | sra   | ref  |  | idx_user_id | 123     | const |       1 | Using where          |	
|  2 | DEPENDENT SUBQUERY | m     | ref  |  | idx_message_info   | 122     | const |       1 | Using index condition; Using where |	
+----+--------------------+-------+------+ -----+------------------------------------------+---------+-------+---------+ -----+

去掉 exists 更改为 join,能够避免嵌套子查询,将执行时间从1.93秒降低为1毫秒。


 
SELECT *	
FROM   my_neighbor n 	
       INNER JOIN message_info m 	
               ON n.id = m.neighbor_id 	
                  AND m.inuser = 'xxx' 	
       LEFT JOIN my_neighbor_apply sra 	
              ON n.id = sra.neighbor_id 	
                 AND sra.user_id = 'xxx' 	
WHERE  n.topic_status < 4 	
       AND n.topic_type <> 5 

新的执行计划:


 
+----+-------------+-------+--------+ -----+------------------------------------------+---------+ -----+------+ -----+	
| id | select_type | table | type   | possible_keys     | key       | key_len | ref   | rows | Extra                 |	
+----+-------------+-------+--------+ -----+------------------------------------------+---------+ -----+------+ -----+	
|  1 | SIMPLE      | m     | ref    | | idx_message_info   | 122     | const    |    1 | Using index condition |	
|  1 | SIMPLE      | n     | eq_ref | | PRIMARY   | 122     | ighbor_id |    1 | Using where      |	
|  1 | SIMPLE      | sra   | ref    | | idx_user_id | 123     | const     |    1 | Using where           |	
+----+-------------+-------+--------+ -----+------------------------------------------+---------+ -----+------+ -----+


6 、条件下推 

外部查询条件不能够下推到复杂的视图或子查询的情况有:

  • 聚合子查询;

  • 含有 LIMIT 的子查询;

  • UNION 或 UNION ALL 子查询;

  • 输出字段中的子查询;

如下面的语句,从执行计划可以看出其条件作用于聚合子查询之后:


 
SELECT * 	
FROM   (SELECT target, 	
               Count(*) 	
        FROM   operation 	
        GROUP  BY target) t 	
WHERE  target = 'rm-xxxx' 

 
+----+-------------+------------+-------+---------------+-------------+---------+-------+------+-------------+	
| id | select_type | table      | type  | possible_keys | key         | key_len | ref   | rows | Extra       |	
+----+-------------+------------+-------+---------------+-------------+---------+-------+------+-------------+	
|  1 | PRIMARY     | <derived2> | ref   | <auto_key0>   | <auto_key0> | 514     | const |    2 | Using where |	
|  2 | DERIVED     | operation  | index | idx_4         | idx_4       | 519     | NULL  |   20 | Using index |	
+----+-------------+------------+-------+---------------+-------------+---------+-------+------+-------------+

确定从语义上查询条件可以直接下推后,重写如下:


 
SELECT target, 	
       Count(*) 	
FROM   operation 	
WHERE  target = 'rm-xxxx' 	
GROUP  BY target

执行计划变为:


 
+----+-------------+-----------+------+---------------+-------+---------+-------+------+--------------------+	
| id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key | key_len | ref | rows | Extra |	
+----+-------------+-----------+------+---------------+-------+---------+-------+------+--------------------+	
| 1 | SIMPLE | operation | ref | idx_4 | idx_4 | 514 | const | 1 | Using where; Using index |	
+----+-------------+-----------+------+---------------+-------+---------+-------+------+--------------------+

关于 MySQL 外部条件不能下推的详细解释说明请参考文章:

http://mysql.taobao.org/monthly/2016/07/08


7 提前缩小范围 

先上初始 SQL 语句:


 
SELECT * 	
FROM   my_order o 	
       LEFT JOIN my_userinfo u 	
              ON o.uid = u.uid	
       LEFT JOIN my_productinfo p 	
              ON o.pid = p.pid 	
WHERE  ( o.display = 0 ) 	
       AND ( o.ostaus = 1 ) 	
ORDER  BY o.selltime DESC 	
LIMIT  0, 15 

该SQL语句原意是:先做一系列的左连接,然后排序取前15条记录。从执行计划也可以看出,最后一步估算排序记录数为90万,时间消耗为12秒。


 
+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+-----------------+--------+----------------------------------------------------+	
| id | select_type | table | type   | possible_keys | key     | key_len | ref             | rows   | Extra                                              |	
+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+-----------------+--------+----------------------------------------------------+	
|  1 | SIMPLE      | o     | ALL    | NULL          | NULL    | NULL    | NULL            | 909119 | Using where; Using temporary; Using filesort       |	
|  1 | SIMPLE      | u     | eq_ref | PRIMARY       | PRIMARY | 4       | o.uid |      1 | NULL                                               |	
|  1 | SIMPLE      | p     | ALL    | PRIMARY       | NULL    | NULL    | NULL            |      6 | Using where; Using join buffer (Block Nested Loop) |	
+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+-----------------+--------+----------------------------------------------------+

由于最后 WHERE 条件以及排序均针对最左主表,因此可以先对 my_order 排序提前缩小数据量再做左连接。SQL 重写后如下,执行时间缩小为1毫秒左右。


 
SELECT * 	
FROM (	
SELECT * 	
FROM   my_order o 	
WHERE  ( o.display = 0 ) 	
       AND ( o.ostaus = 1 ) 	
ORDER  BY o.selltime DESC 	
LIMIT  0, 15	
) o 	
     LEFT JOIN my_userinfo u 	
              ON o.uid = u.uid 	
     LEFT JOIN my_productinfo p 	
              ON o.pid = p.pid 	
ORDER BY  o.selltime DESC	
limit 0, 15

再检查执行计划:子查询物化后(select_type=DERIVED)参与 JOIN。虽然估算行扫描仍然为90万,但是利用了索引以及 LIMIT 子句后,实际执行时间变得很小。


 
+----+-------------+------------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+-------+--------+----------------------------------------------------+	
| id | select_type | table      | type   | possible_keys | key     | key_len | ref   | rows   | Extra                                              |	
+----+-------------+------------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+-------+--------+----------------------------------------------------+	
|  1 | PRIMARY     | <derived2> | ALL    | NULL          | NULL    | NULL    | NULL  |     15 | Using temporary; Using filesort                    |	
|  1 | PRIMARY     | u          | eq_ref | PRIMARY       | PRIMARY | 4       | o.uid |      1 | NULL                                               |	
|  1 | PRIMARY     | p          | ALL    | PRIMARY       | NULL    | NULL    | NULL  |      6 | Using where; Using join buffer (Block Nested Loop) |	
|  2 | DERIVED     | o          | index  | NULL          | idx_1   | 5       | NULL  | 909112 | Using where                                        |	
+----+-------------+------------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+-------+--------+----------------------------------------------------+


8 中间结果集下推 

再来看下面这个已经初步优化过的例子(左连接中的主表优先作用查询条件):


 
SELECT    a.*, 	
          c.allocated 	
FROM      ( 	
              SELECT   resourceid 	
              FROM     my_distribute d 	
                   WHERE    isdelete = 0 	
                   AND      cusmanagercode = '1234567' 	
                   ORDER BY salecode limit 20) a 	
LEFT JOIN 	
          ( 	
              SELECT   resourcesid, sum(ifnull(allocation, 0) * 12345) allocated 	
              FROM     my_resources 	
                   GROUP BY resourcesid) c 	
ON        a.resourceid = c.resourcesid

那么该语句还存在其它问题吗?不难看出子查询 c 是全表聚合查询,在表数量特别大的情况下会导致整个语句的性能下降。

其实对于子查询 c,左连接最后结果集只关心能和主表 resourceid 能匹配的数据。因此我们可以重写语句如下,执行时间从原来的2秒下降到2毫秒。


 
SELECT    a.*, 	
          c.allocated 	
FROM      ( 	
                   SELECT   resourceid 	
                   FROM     my_distribute d 	
                   WHERE    isdelete = 0 	
                   AND      cusmanagercode = '1234567' 	
                   ORDER BY salecode limit 20) a 	
LEFT JOIN 	
          ( 	
                   SELECT   resourcesid, sum(ifnull(allocation, 0) * 12345) allocated 	
                   FROM     my_resources r, 	
                            ( 	
                                     SELECT   resourceid 	
                                     FROM     my_distribute d 	
                                     WHERE    isdelete = 0 	
                                     AND      cusmanagercode = '1234567' 	
                                     ORDER BY salecode limit 20) a 	
                   WHERE    r.resourcesid = a.resourcesid 	
                   GROUP BY resourcesid) c 	
ON        a.resourceid = c.resourcesid

但是子查询 a 在我们的SQL语句中出现了多次。这种写法不仅存在额外的开销,还使得整个语句显的繁杂。使用 WITH 语句再次重写:


 
WITH a AS 	
( 	
         SELECT   resourceid 	
         FROM     my_distribute d 	
         WHERE    isdelete = 0 	
         AND      cusmanagercode = '1234567' 	
         ORDER BY salecode limit 20)	
SELECT    a.*, 	
          c.allocated 	
FROM      a 	
LEFT JOIN 	
          ( 	
                   SELECT   resourcesid, sum(ifnull(allocation, 0) * 12345) allocated 	
                   FROM     my_resources r, 	
                            a 	
                   WHERE    r.resourcesid = a.resourcesid 	
                   GROUP BY resourcesid) c 	
ON        a.resourceid = c.resourcesid


9 、总结

数据库编译器产生执行计划,决定着SQL的实际执行方式。但是编译器只是尽力服务,所有数据库的编译器都不是尽善尽美的。

上述提到的多数场景,在其它数据库中也存在性能问题。了解数据库编译器的特性,才能避规其短处,写出高性能的SQL语句。

程序员在设计数据模型以及编写SQL语句时,要把算法的思想或意识带进来。

编写复杂SQL语句要养成使用 WITH 语句的习惯。简洁且思路清晰的SQL语句也能减小数据库的负担 。

(完)

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